Roman Catholics claim to have a more meaningful celebration of the Lord’s Supper (Eucharist) than Protestants and have used this to attract many converts, some from Protestant backgrounds, to the Roman Catholic Church. The Catholic view of transubstantiation teaches that the elements of Communion become the literal body and blood of Christ, if true, would make the Eucharist a significant ceremony. Catholics believe Christ is truly, really, and substantially contained under the elements (Pope Pius IV 1564). The mass is defined as the “unbloody sacrifice” of Christ. The Biblical problem with transubstantiation is its failure to recognize the symbolic nature of Christ’s words, “This is my body” and to recognize the finality and completeness of Christ’s sacrifice on the cross (Hebrew 9:25-28; 10:10-14).
The Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation was not officially proclaimed until the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215. The presence of Christ in communion was a great controversy during the Carolingian period when Paschasius Radbertus declared the elements were transformed into the body and blood of Christ while another monk of Corbie, Ratramnus, denied a physical presence.
Protestants who reject the actual presence of Christ in the elements can be guilty of making the Lord’s Supper a mere ritual devoid of any spiritual significance. Paul considered the Lord’s Supper to be a serious celebration and issues a grave warning to those who participate in an unworthy manner (1 Corinthians 11:29-30). Even though the elements are symbols of the broken body and shed blood of Christ, the service should be conducted as a genuine remembrance of the believer’s participation in the benefits of the death of Christ as well as a time of spiritual nourishment, self-examination and reaffirmation of one’s faith in Christ. Pastors should encourage members to prepare themselves during the week to be ready to participate in a worthy manner and in a unity of spirit.
Today we have no need for any additional sacrifices, whether bloody or unbloody. When Christ upon the cross cried out, “It is finished,” the atonement was completed; however, Christians do need to follow our Lord’s instruction to remember His death until He comes (1 Corinthians 11:26). Rather than treating Communion as a shallow or meaningless ritual, Christians can and should celebrate it as the spiritual feast of fellowship in remembrance of our Lord’s suffering on the cross that it was intended to be.